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戈(gē) 对(duì)甲(jiǎ),鼓(gǔ)对(duì)旗(qí),紫(zǐ)燕(yàn)对(duì)黄(huáng)鹂(lí)。

梅(méi) 酸(suān)对(duì)李(lǐ)苦(kǔ),青(qīng)眼(yǎn)对(duì)白(bái)眉(méi)。 1

三(sān) 弄(nòng)笛(dí),一(yì) 围(wéi)棋(qí),雨(yǔ)打(dǎ)对(duì)风(fēng)吹(chuī)。2

海(hǎi)棠(táng)春(chūn) 睡(shuì)早(zǎo),杨(yáng)柳(liǔ)昼(zhòu) 眠(mián) 迟(chí)。3

张(zhāng) 骏(jùn) 曾(céng)为(wéi)槐(huái) 树(shù)赋(fù),4

杜(dù) 陵(líng)不(bù)作(zuò)海(hǎi)棠(táng) 诗(shī)。5

晋(jìn) 士(shì)特(tè)奇(qí),可(kě)比(bǐ)一(yì)斑(bān)之(zhī) 豹(bào);6

唐(táng) 儒(rú) 博(bó)识(shí),堪(kān) 为(wéi)五(wǔ)总(zǒng)之(zhī)龟(guī)。7

1.

青眼:正视时眼球是黑色的,称青眼。斜视时眼白出现,称白眼。传说西晋的阮籍对礼法之人以白眼,只有嵇康来访,才用青眼相看。后因以“青眼”表示对人喜爱或器重。

When you look at sb squarely, the eyeballs are in the middle and in Chinese it’s called “Qing (black) Yan (eyes)”, means you treat them friendly and respectfully. When you look sb in sideways, you show the white of the eyes to them, which is called “bai(white) yan(eyes)”, means you treat sb with disdain.

白眉:三国时蜀人马良(字季常)有兄弟五人,都以“常”字排行,皆有才名。其中马良的才学在兄弟当中最为突出。马良眉有白毛,当时有俗语说“马氏五常,白眉最良”。后世便称兄弟中才干突出者为白眉。

Ma Liang, who lived in Shu of the Three Kingdoms, has white eyebrows, is the most outstanding one among his five talented brothers. They all named with a character of “Chang”. Later on people call the most outstanding and talented one “Bai Mei (white eyebrows)” among his siblings.

2.

三弄笛: 晋人王徽之(王羲之之子)曾听说恒伊善吹笛,但互不相识。有一天,王徽之乘船出城,恒伊正驾车从岸上经过。别人告诉王徽之,这个人就是恒伊。王徽之便叫人对恒伊说:“闻君善吹笛,试为我一奏。”当时恒伊已担任过淮南太守、豫州刺史等官,但久闻王徽之的名气,便下车为王徽之吹了三支曲子。吹完以后,二人并未交谈便各奔东西。(君子之交淡如水麽~~)

San Nong Di: literal meaning: play three pieces of music. Heng Yi is good at piping. One day Wang Weizhi, a famous calligrapher, was getting out of town by boat when Heng Yi was passing by on the bank. Wang Weizhi have someone ask Heng Yin to play some music for him. Heng Yin at that time already was a high rank official but he’d heard about Wang Weizhi’s for a long time. He played three pieces of music for Wang. After that, they departed with each other without saying anything.

3.

海棠:指杨玉环。唐明皇在沉香亭召见杨贵妃,而贵妃宿醉未醒。明皇叫侍女将贵妃扶至沉香亭,杨贵妃带醉补了一下妆,但不能下拜。唐明皇笑着说,“岂醉?是海棠睡未足耳!”

Hai Tang, refers to Ms. Yang Yuhuan, an imperial concubine Emperor Ming of Tang Dynasty(Tang Ming Huang) most loved. Once Tang Ming Huang summoned Yang Yuhuan but she wasn’t able to bow down herself due to hangover. Tang Ming Huang said “she’s not drunken, she is just suffering the deprivation of sleep like the Malus spectabilis”.

杨柳:据说汉代皇家花园中有柳形如人,名人柳,一日三眠三起。

Yang Liu: It’s said that there is a willow in the Royal Park of Han Dynasty, shaped like a human being which bends three times a day just like a person sleep three times and wakes up three times a day.

4.

槐树赋:河右地区(今甘肃酒泉一带)起初没有柳树槐树,张骏从陕西带来种植,但都死了。后来只有酒泉宫西北隅有槐树长出,因做“槐树赋”。

Huai Shu Fu: Poem to a Chinese Scholar tree: There was no willow nor Chinese Scholar trees (don’t know why the name is translated in this way~~~) in area of Jiuquan, Gansu before. Zhang Jun brought those tress from Shaanxi but only the Huai Tree survived at northwest of Jiuquan, so he made a poem to record it.

5.

杜陵不作海棠诗: 杜陵指杜甫。《王禹传诗画》杜甫母亲名海棠,为避讳从不作海棠诗。陆游则认为是失传了。

Du Ling refers to Du Fu. There was a saying that Du Fu’s mother’s name was Hai Tang (Malus spectabilis) so he never wrote poems on this. However, Lu You (another famous poet) said they may just got lost.

6.

一斑之豹:王献之小时候看人玩一种棋,能看出双方的胜负。游戏者看他年龄小,轻视他,说:“此郎亦管中窥豹,时见一斑。”When Wang Xianzhi was a kid, he could tell who would win when watch a chess game. The players said in disdain “he was only peeping a leopard through a tube and only see a spot (means only have a limited view of sth.)”.

7.

五总之龟:意为对世事无所不知。龟每二百岁生出二尾称一总,至千岁生出五总称一聚,五总之龟无所不知。唐殷践猷博学多闻,贺知章称其为“五总龟”。唐颜真卿《丽正殿二学士殷君墓碣铭》“贺呼君为五总龟,以龟千年五聚,问无不知也。”

Yin Jianyou, lived in Tang Dynasty, who was a know-all and was called “Wu Zong Gui (a Turtle with ten tails)”. A Turtle will grow two tails every two hundred years and two tails is called a “Zong”, then till it’s 1,000 years old, the turtle will have “Five Zong” or “Yi Ju” A Turtle with 10 tails knows everything.

来源:公众微信:每天学国学  Lina/文

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